These little palette colors will take you to new windows
Dioxine Purple Ultramarine Blue Cobalt Blue Thalo Cyan Blue Turquoise transparent Green Opaque Thalo Green
Burnt Umber Real Color Wheel in Pigments Permanent Green Light
Burnt Sienna
Venetian Red Yellow Green Opaque
Yellow Oxide
Naples Yellow Light Green Gold Transparent
Magenta Rembrandt Rose Cadmium Red Medium Cadmium Orange Indian Yellow Gold transparent Cadmium Yellow Medium Cadmium Yellow Pale
and describe each pigment color on the colorwheel.

Brought to you by the

This is the only transparent 3 primary color wheel like this. It matches natures' way of making crystals dark.
Use this Real Color Wheel to match pigments that are the correct neutral-dark color mixing complements.
Use it for mixing shadows and shade colors without using black pigment.
Use it for making 18 different complement sets and 648 split-complement sets.
A color wheel designed by a color artist painting only on location for 30 years and taking color notes.
It matches crystal color oppositions.
Cyan is from the copper element and makes Thalo blue,
the copper crystal has cyan's opposite red color.
Lead makes a blue crystal and a yellow oxide.
Quartz makes a magenta and green crystal as one, to both white opaque and black clear.

Original Real Color Wheel 
This transparent 3 primary color-crystal color wheel joins together
the colors of Light, Crystals and Pigments.

Q. Why is a Real Color Wheel handy?
Q. When you're on location painting or photographing and arranging colors, how do you use it?
A. While painting you see an object. Take the brightest local color on it and mix in its opposite color to darken and shadow it.
Here are the correct oppositions to make all shadows and colors that look good together. It takes a lot of memorizing to know each colors opposite so it's handy to read the color in nature and see the name of the pigment on the RCW Color wheel.

For the Printer and Plotter artists, see the gamma differences between an RGB profile and a CMYK profile.

Google docs - RCW Hue Notations, primary mixtures, percentages and parts, matching the Real Color Wheel colors

Compare the top yellow and cyan RGB light/dark graduation to the RCW light/dark graduation.

Real Color Wheel Compare Chart

Color Elements make Transparent Colored Crystals which match Light and Pigment colors.

RCW and RGB colorwheels can use the same 36 intense rim colors.
The Red-Green-Blue RGB light spectrum that the computer uses subtracts light to darken colors so only only the full hue rim colors and tints are similar to the full hue colors on the Real Color Wheel.
The RCW matches the way a transparent colored crystal of each colors element becomes darker.
This RCW comes in CMYK for Pigment color reproduction and RGB for emitted computer Light color. The emitted light colors match the CMYK transparent pigment colors that are used in my plotter as inks for printing the Real Color Wheel as well as my painting media.

Here are correct tint colors & incorrect shadow colors

Tint, Real Color Wheel tint colors RGB/YMC colorwheels
RCW tint color wheel is the same as the RGB tint color wheel.
The RGB/CMY colorwheel on the right is NOT for pigments:
it does not darken as pigment crystals do, it darkens to black effecting the color incorrectly.

CMYK Real Color Wheel

RGB Real Color Wheel

#36 Yellow-yellow-green and #1 yellow are side by side, each using 10 degrees of the 360 degrees circle.
Raw umber is the coolest dark pigment for that color RCW#1.10.1 yellow. This yellow-greenish-brown is cooler in the previous 10º arc for Green Umber #36.10.9.
Orange darkens to the brown of red just the same as yellow and red do, in it's transition we get Burnt Sienna in orange.
Yellow, orange and red darken to the same dark umber brown.
Opaque red objects become lighter adding opaque orange pigment or the transparent primary yellow. I noticed this on a cardinal in the sunlight.
Orange objects darken by adding burnt sienna or burnt umber.
Cadmium red light changes to cadmium red medium with the addition of transparent magenta (PR:122).
Cyan, cobalt blue & ultramarine blue darken to the same dark blue, similar to the way yellow & orange & red go to the same brown in the opposite set of 7 colors.
Cyan is opposite red, when mixed together evenly they make a dark neutral. Red and yellow darken to warm brown, warm brown with cool dark blue make a neutral dark plus all shade and shadow colors for both colors before reaching neutral dark. Any neutral dark can be tinted to a neutral gray tint, the underside of a cloud color.

Transparent magenta and transparent green are opposite, just add any two opposite colors together to get either a darker shadow color or all the way dark to a neutral dark.

The old Red-Blue-Yellow is inaccurate for any artist.

This CLICKABLE chip color map below shows the true opposition pigment colors for mixing neutral darks on my color wheel.

Blockx Yellow Cobalt Old Holland Gamboge Lake Ex. Syn. O.H. Indian Yellow Brown Lake Syn. Rembrandt Asphaltum Syn, very oily Burnt Umber Mussini Zinc Yellow, the coolest yellow. No link Bocour Cad Yellow Lead Chromate Grumbacher Cad Barium Yellow Pale Mussini Naples Yellow Light, Nickle Titanium O.H. Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Syn. Dual-tone Mussini Raw Umber Blockx Baryum Yellow, very weak O.H. Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Syn. Mussini Naples Yellow Deep Yelow Raw Ocher Mussini Trans Yellow Oxide Green Earth Green Gold Nickel Azo Sap Green Syn. dual-tone Green Umber Earth Green Oxide W/N Flesh Burnt Sienna Rewmbrandt Chinese Vermilion syn. O.H. Yellow Green Organic Mussini Cad. Yellow Lemon Mussini Cad yellow Middle Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Syn Blockx Venation Opaque Warm Red Oxide Cadmium Orange Cadmium Barium Red Light Permanent Green Light Grumbacher Phthalo Green Light Mussini Opaque Green Light Mussini Phthalo Green Turquoise, Rembrandt Blue Green Cadimium Bayrum Red Light Rembrandt Red Rose Rose Madder, Yarka Garance Violet Grumbacher Thalo Blue, Old Holland Manganese Blue O.H. Scheveninge BLue Light Opaque D.Smith Quinacridone Magenta pr122 Cobalt Violet Transparent, Cool Magenta Dual-tone Cobalt Blue Light Mussini Royal Blue Light Blockx French Ult. Bue Ultramarine Violet Dioxazine Purple Mussini Royal Blue Deep Ultramarine Deep Ultramarine Light Dioxazine Purple tints cool

Notice in this table chart of numbers (this is not an image) how this original crystal matching colorwheel darkens yellow to warm brown while cyan darkens to cool ult blue.

 00   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   01   02   03   04   05   06   07   08   09   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19 

The transparent primary color Yellow in pigments can shade to either a green Cool Dark, like in the RGB/YMC light system or to a red Warm Dark, like my color wheel has it for pigments. The transparent color pigment Yellow must be on the warm side for the artist to mix it with any other warm color. By adding a cool yellow/green pigment to a warm yellow color you would lessen the intensity of the yellow and make it dirty.

Yellow to Black in the RGB is very similar to Green's dark in both the RGB and CMYK colorwheels.
The Real Colour Wheel, RCW, is different. Yellow goes to Red's warm dark brown like in nature, not green's cool dark.
As in the Titanium crystal Rutile. Link

Electromagnetic Spectrum Color Chart (EM) 7-25-8

Real Color Wheel Electromagnetic (EM) Spectrum Color Chart is very accurate and measured in Nanometers,
1,000,000,000 nm to 1 meter.
Here is how to check it for color accuracy. Open the downloaded 600 ppi EM spectrum chart and enlarge it 200%, (that's really big) and read the color just above or below the color's dot with your color picker. Read this color in an RGB color wheel like Adobe's or the Real Color Wheel. For the less saturated colors like yellow and orange move the slide to the full hue. This small 72 dpi web image has a Twentieth Anniversary Macintosh profile. The download 600 ppi tif has an sRGB IEC61966-2.1 profile.

Real Color Wheel Electromagnetic Spectrum (EM) color chart

If you would like the link to this large 600 dpi tif EM image in a Zip file ask for one by Email.
Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart 600 ppi by Real Color Wheel - Email

If you want more information about the electromagnetic spectrum it's on my rainbow page.

Printer and plotter artists, don't miss this RGB-CMYK printing comparison.

The RCW Real Color Wheel is also the Crystal Real Color Wheel. It shows the colors of these elements in there natural progression as they get darker. For instance, crystal oxides containing iron, go from yellow to brown, orange to brown or red to brown.

Since this is so, it makes light's RGB colorwheel inaccurate for plotting pigments or for the artist to use as a color wheel in the field. Ultramarine blue must be opposite yellow and plot opposite yellow, like on this wheel. It is just as accurate as the simple RGB positioning of pure colors, only better because it includes the correct darker colors of each.

A new opaque Irgazine Yellow is a perfect warm darker yellow, 36RCW#1.6 while the new Bismuth Yellow is the bright full chroma RCW#1.0 The Irgazine Yellow has a very slight dual-tonality and will mix with its complement ultramarine blue to a dark.

Look at RCW#36.0, Yellow-green, and compare it to the primary path to dark for yellow on the RGB wheel. They look the same. There is no warm yellow path to dark in the RGB, only a cool one. On the RCW, I properly put them side-by-side. I use the warm path of yellow as the path of pure primary Yellow and the cool path as Yellow-green's path because this is exactly how the pigment crystals darken. Dual-toned Irgazine Green is a transparent Yellow-green and it mixes a neutral with Dioxzine Purple.

Here are some crystals that could interest the artist since crystals are pigments and chemicals are made with the same elements.

The Calcite crystal, [CaCo3], makes the perfect Cyan color with the Copper element in the Iceland Spar Crystal which changes color when viewed from different directions (PLEOCHROISM) to the color Ultramarine Blue. The Iceland Spar's copper content causes the color to appear in a span of colors from cyan to ultramarine blue depending on your position to it.
Yellow is made with Iron, and Magenta is the Sphaerocobaltite Pink Calcite Crystal made with allochromatic Cobalt. The Calcite Crystal is also a natural polarizing filter.
Quartz, [Si02], Iron Rose Quartz and Manganese Amethyst both touch on the Magenta color.
Copper makes Green to Cyan in the Chalcedony crystal and its opposite color in the Red Carnelian crystal. Allochromatic Nickel makes a cool Yellow in the Chrysoprase crystal, added Iron makes a warm yellow to orange in the Citrine Quartz Crystal.
Iron will make all three primary colors in the crystal Corundum, plus making the secondary colors Red, Ult. Blue and Green. The Red and Green have added Chromium to the crystal.

For the chemical colors and their color paths go here.


Here are some permanent chemical pigments used in oil, water, fresco and acrylic paints today.
Note that Transparent Indian Yellow and translucent Gamboge are synthetic hue/color names, these colors as "genuine" are not available or used today.


New 7-10-9, Dual-toned Indian Yellow color chip images, new window.

Dual-toned Indian Yellows;
Yellow-Brown-Oxide hue to Lemon Yellow, PY:150 (Nickel Azo Brown - Lemon O.H.)
Yellow-Orange to Yellow, PY:153 Org/s, Dioxine Nickel Complex, BEST
Yellow-Orange to Yellow, PY:100 Tartrazine, best for ink and watercolors.
Orange to Yellow, PY:95 Azo Condensation w/ PR:101 Syn Iron Oxide (Indian Yellow - Brown Extra O.H.)
*PR:101 Iron Oxide is not dual-toned by itself.
Yellow-Green-Oxide hue to Yellow, PY:153 Org/s Dioxine Nickel Complex w/ PY:129 Azo methine copper complex (Indian Yellow-Green Lake Extra OH)
Yellow-Brown-Oxide hue to Yellow, PY:153 Org/s Dioxine Nickel Complex (Zecchi Syn Indian Yellow) dry pigment
Red-Brown to yellow, PY:153 Org/s Dioxine Nickel Complex w/ Yellow Oxide PY42 (Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra OH)
*PY42 Iron Oxide is not dual-toned by itself (Transparent Oxide-Yellow Lake OH)
Red-Orange to Yellow, PY:153 Org/s Dioxine Nickel Complex w/ PY:10 Isoindolin, Isoindolinone and Isoindoline are not transparent (Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra OH)
Red to Yellow, PY:153 Dioxine Nickel Complex w/ Quinacridone (Old Holland Red Gold Lake OH)
Yellow-Ocher Gr/s hue to Yellow, PY:129 Azo methine copper complex w/ Azo Condensation PY:95 (Indian Yellow-Green Extra OH)

Dual-toned Indian Yellow-Greens;
Green to Yellow-Green, PY:150 Gr/s Nickel Azomethine w/ PG36 Y/s Copper Complex w/ PY3 Hansa Yellow (Green Gold by Golden)
Green-Orange hue to Yellow-Green, PY:129 Azo methine copper complex (Old Holland Green Gold)
Green-Oxide hue to Yellow-Green, PY:117 Azo methine copper complex (Genuine Golden Green by Mussini)


Yellow-Brown-Oxide hue to Lemon Yellow, PY150 Nickel Azo Complex (Nickel Azo Brown - Lemon by O.H.)
Yellow-Orange to Lemon Yellow, PY:153 Org/s, Dioxine Nickel Complex by O.H.
PR122 quinacridone = Magenta
PV23.1r carbazole dioxazine = Purple
PV23 dioxazine nickel complex = Permanent Violet Blueish transparent secondary blue
PB60 anthraquinone and Indanthrone = Blue Deep to Turquoise
PB15.3 copper phthalocyanine (BEST) and PB33 manganese Barium Manganate= Cyan (Thalo Blue and Manganese Blue transparent)
PB7 Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Turquoise to Green
PY83 stable di-arylide + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine = Sap Green Y/S
PY83 stable di-arylide HR + PG7 chlorinated copper phthalocyanine + PO43 perinone orange = Sap Green O/S
2002, Liquitex has some nice new transparent colors, Acra Gold = yellow to brown, darker than Indian Yellow Brown Side. A Burnt Orange that's brown to orange and Van Dyke Brown, a brown to red color.
2006, Golden Artist Colors added Indian Yellow Golden Hue, Arylide Yellow PY7, Nickel Complex Azo PY150 and Quinacridone PR206, transparent, very nice Indian yellow. Also added, a green/brown Indian yellow hue called Nickel Azo Yellow.

Used in addition to the transparent primary pigments for their opaqueness and brilliance.

PY100 Tartrazine, PY150, PY153 Nickel Azo = Transparent Yellow PY35 cadmium Zinc sulfide = Cadmium Yellow Lemon
PY37 cadmium sulfide = Cadmium Yellow Light, Medium
PO20 cadmium sulfo-selenide = Cadmium Orange
PR108 cadmium seleno-sulfide = Cadmium Red Light, Medium
PR88 Thioindagoid Red, a perfect opaque red.
PR101 synthetic red iron oxide = Red Oxide
PR122 quinacridone magenta = Transparent Magenta
PY42 synthetic yellow iron oxide = Yellow Oxide
PBr7 natural iron oxide, raw and calcined = Sienna and Umber
PB29 silica, aluminum, sulphur complex = Ultramarine Blue
PB28 oxides of cobalt and aluminum = Cobalt Blue
PB15.3 phthalocyanine (Thalo) (Pathalo) = Transparent Cyan PB36 phthalocyanine (Thalo) (Pathalo) = Transparent Green Yellow/side PG17 anhydrous chromium senquioxide = Chromium Oxide Green
PY129 irgazine green = Transparent dual-toned green to yellow-green



Yellow on top, read red right. #1 to #36, 10 degrees each color.

#1, to reach a dark neutral use the darkest form of yellow, orange or red (all of which are burnt umber) and mix it with its opposite color.
Red, Burnt umber and ultramarine blue, cobalt blue or cyan will mix neutral darks.
Darken an orange object by first adding red, then add raw sienna or burnt sienna or burnt umber depending on the color needed.
Burnt Sienna is a dark orange. Burnt umber is a darker orange.
Burnt Sienna with cobalt blue will make burnt umber.
Cad Orange has twice as much opaque yellow in it than red does so you have to mix it with the orange in it's darker form (which is burnt umber) to reach a neutral dark.
Opaque Cad Orange and Opaque Cobalt blue will only make a neutral gray because orange is opaque with 3/4 yellow and 1/4 magenta, that amount of opaque yellow will prevent it from mixing to a really (dark) dark neutral, it makes a neutral gray instead.
Burnt umber is the darkest orange, burnt umber and cobalt blue will mix neutral dark which can be lightened to a neutral gray, all neutral darks can be lightened to neutral gray.
Cad Red Light will mix a red oxide hue or a burnt umber hue with transparent cyan.
Cad Red Light will mix a neutral dark with transparent cyan.
Cad Red Light with Magenta PR:122 will make a Cad Red Medium.

To darken a yellow object first use the mass-tone of transparent yellow, from that point add the graduated color oxides like yellow ocher light, medium or dark to brown oxide.
Adding blue to any yellow color less dark than raw or burnt umber brings the color to a green side which is not normally natural looking.
Brown with a varying amount of blue works best. Add that mixture to any yellow oxide color to darken it.
Orange will darken farther than Bt. Sienna with the addition of its opposite color cobalt blue which will make a brown.
Orange darkens first with the addition of red. Red lightens with the addition of orange.
Red darkens with its opposite color cyan and makes the color red oxide, more cyan will mix Bt. Umber or a neutral dark.

Cyan first darkens to blue, like the sky, cyan at the horizon and ult/royal blue at the azimuth.
Cyan and red darken neutral.
Blue and red oxide or brown (both are dark reds) mix a dark neutral.

The rest of this color wheels colors will darken by adding the opposite color until it reaches neutral dark.
All Greens darken with magenta, all magentas darken with green.
All yellow-greens darken with blue-purple, all blue-purples darken with transparent yellow-green.
Transparent Indian yellow Org/s PY:153 can be an orange hue in its mass-tone or a cad yellow light hue in its tint.
Transparent Indian yellow Br/s PY:150 can be a yellow oxide hue in its mass tone or a cad yellow light hue in its tint.

Therefore, anyone working with pigments can reliably find truly opposite colors, which will always mix to a neutral dark without using black pigment.
An artist can create the shadowed areas of any colored object by combining that color with its opposite as found on this color wheel.
This mixture will match nature every time, unlike the results obtained using ant other color wheel.
It works with the same colors in both pigment and light, the first color wheel ever to do that.  

Oil Pigment Palette.
There is a space for each of these colors on my 27 RCW COLOR OIL PALETTE although I may not fill them all every time I paint.

White is in the middle of the palette. The top of the palette on the left is Dioxazine Purple, Ultramarine Blue, Cobalt Blue, Thalo Blue, Turquoise, Opaque Green and Thalo Green Y/s on the right. 

The left side goes from Dioxazine Purple to Burnt Umber, Bt. Sienna, Red Oxide, Yellow Ochre, Naples Yellow (or lead-tin Yellow) to Quinacridone Magenta at the bottom. 

The bottom row of colors is Quinacridone Magenta, Rembrandt Rose, Cad Red, Cadmium Orange, Indian Yellow Golden, Cadmium Yellow Medium, Cadmium Yellow Light, Cadmium Yellow Pale, Lead Yellow Lemon is in the bottom right corner of the palette. 

The right side is from Thalo Green Y/s on the top, than Permanent Green Light, Green Gold, Yellow-Green Transparent & Opaque with Lead Yellow Light at the bottom. 

I keep all 37 of these oil pigments below on hand with me, they all have their special color and pigment properties.

00. Mussini Zinc Yellow,   01. Bellini Lemon Yellow,   02. YYYY, Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale,   02a. YYYY, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Lemon,   04. Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra,   05. Schmincke Mussini Cadmium Yellow Middle,   06, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra,   06a. Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra,   07. YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange,   08. Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra,   09. YYMM, Cadmium Red Medium,   10, YMMM, Rembrandt Rose,   11. MMMM, Daniel Smith Quinacridone PR122 Magenta,   12. MMMM, Bocour, New York, Cobalt Violet Phosphate, removed   13. MMMC, Liquitex Carbazole Dioxazine Purple,   14. Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple,   15. Ultramarine Violet,   16. MMCC, Blocks French Ultramarine Blue,   17. Mussini Ultramarine Light,   18. Mussini Cobalt Blue Light,   19. CCCC, Grumbacher Thalo Blue PB15.3,   20. CCCY, Rembrandt Blue Green,   21. CCYY, Mussini Phthalo Green B/s,   22. Mussini Opaque Green Light,   23. Grumbacher Thalo Green Yellow/Side,   24. Mussini Permanent Green Light,   25. Winsor and Newton Sap Green permanent,   26. CYYY, Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic Opaque,   27. Mussini Naples Yellow Light,   27a. Mussini Naples Yellow Deep,   28. Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher,   29. Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide,   30. Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum,   31. Mussini Raw Umber,   32. Mussini Burnt Umber,   33. Mussini Burnt Sienna,   34. Blocks Venetian Red,   35, Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide,   36. Grumbacher Green Earth,   37. Mussini Genuine Golden Green, 


RCW#1.00.1, Chrome Yellow Light, Lead Chromate, Opaque PY34
RCW#1.00.2, Nickel Titanate Yellow, PY53, Opaque
RCW#1.00.3, Hansa Yellow = Monoazo Yellow, PY74, Translucent
RCW#1.0.1, Yellow Light Hansa = Arylamide, PY3, Translucent
RCW#1.0.1, Cadmium Zinc Sulfide, PY35, Opaque
RCW#1.0.2, Cadmium Lemon, PY35, Opaque
RCW#1.0.3, Bismuth Yellow, PY184. Opaque
RCW#1.0.5, Aureolin = Potassium Cobaltinitrite, PY40, Translucent
RCW#1.2, Indian Yellow = Anthrapyrimidine, PY108, Translucent.
RCW#1.4, Warm Gold Ocher = Azo Yellow + Monoazo Yellow, PY151, Translucent
RCW#1.6, Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra = Dioxine Nickel Complex + Synthetic Iron Oxide, PY150 + PY42, Transparent.
RCW#1.6.1, Indian Yellow Gr/s = Nickel Chelated Azo, PG10F, Transparent.
RCW#1.6.5, Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra, Dioxine Nickel Complex + Isoindoline, PY153 + PR260, Transparent
RCW#1.10.1, Raw Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7 or PY42, Translucent
RCW#1.10.9, Burnt Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#2.01, Naples Yellow = Titanium Dioxide + Rutile-Nickel-Tin-Titanium or Chromium-Antimony or Titanium Yellow, PW6, PY53, PBr24, Opaque
RCW#2.0, Chrome Yellow Orange = Lead Chromate, PY34, Opaque
RCW#2.4, Yellow Ochre = Natural Hydrated Iron Oxide, PY43, Opaque
RCW#2.10, Burnt Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#3.01, Naples Yellow Deep = Lead Antimonate, PY41, Opaque
RCW#3.0, Cadmium Yellow Deep, Opaque
RCW#3.3, Raw Sienna = Natural Iron Oxide, PBr7, Opaque
RCW#3.4, Italian Deep yellow Ocher R/s, Opaque
RCW#3.6, Quinacridone Deep Gold PO48, Transparent
RCW#3.7, Brown Oxide, PR101, Transparent
RCW#3.10, Burnt Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#4.0.4, Benzimidazolone Orange, PO62, Transparent
RCW#4.0.5, Cadmium Orange = Cadmium Sulfo-Selenide, PO20, Opaque
RCW#4.6, Burnt Sienna, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#4.10, Burnt Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#5.7, Italian burnt Sienna, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#5.10, Burnt Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#6, Chinese Vermilion = Mercury Sulfide, Translucent
RCW#6 Vermilion Extra = Isoindolindon, PR260, Translucent
RCW#6.10, Burnt Umber Brown = Natural Earth = Hydrated Iron Oxide, PBr7, Translucent
RCW#7.0.5 Thioindagoid Red, PR88, Opaque
RCW#7.0.5 Cadmium Red Light Red, PR108, Opaque
RCW#7.6, Light Red Oxide & Venetian Red Warm, Synthetic Iron Oxide, PR101, Opaque
RCW#8.0, Irgazine Red, PR254, Opaque
RCW#10.01, Light Portrait Pink = Naphthol Red AS-D + Titanium White + Diarylide Yellow, PR122, PW6, PY83, Opaque
RCW#10.0, Naphthol Crimson = Naphthol AS, PR170, Translucent
RCW#12.01, Light Magenta = Naphthol AS + Quinacridone Violet + Titanium Dioxide + Zinc Oxide, PR188, PR122, PW6, Opaque
RCW#12.0, Permanent Rose = Quinacridone, PV19, Transparent
RCW#13.0, Quinacridone Magenta = PR122, Transparent Magenta
RCW#14.0, Cobalt Violet, PV49, Opaque Cool Magenta. Opaque
RCW#14.0, Cobalt Violet = Cobalt Phosphate, PV14, Transparent Cool Magenta
RCW#15.0, Manganese Violet, PV23 R/s, Top-tone, Transparent
RCW#15.6, Manganese Violet, PV23 R/s, Mass-tone, Transparent
RCW#16.0, Dioxazine Purple or Carbazole Dioxazine, PV23, Top-tone, Transparent
RCW#16.6, Dioxazine Purple or Carbazole Dioxazine, PV23, Mass-tone, Transparent
RCW#18.0, Ultramarine Violet = Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Top-tone, Transparent
RCW#18.6, Ultramarine Violet = Alumosilicate of Sodium, PV15, Mass-tone, Transparent
RCW#19.01.1, King's Blue Deep = Zinc Oxide + Titanium Dioxide Rutile + Synthetic Ultramarine, PB29, PW4, PW6, PB29, Opaque
RCW#19.01.5, Light Blue Violet + Ultramarine Blue + Titanium Dioxide, PB29, PW6, Opaque
RCW#19.0.5, French Ultramarine Blue, PB29, Translucent
RCW#19.2.5, Ultramarine Blue Light, PB29, Translucent
RCW#19.3.5, Ultramarine Blue Deep = Complex Silicate of Sodium and Aluminum with Sulfur, PB29, Translucent
RCW#22.0, Cobalt Blue = Oxides of Cobalt and Aluminum, PB28, Opaque
RCW#25.0, Pathalocyanine / Phthalo / Thalo = Cyan Blue, PB15.3, Transparent.
RCW#25.0, Cerulean Blue Opaque = Oxides of Cobalt and Chromium, PB-36. Opaque
RCW#25.0, Manganese Blue by O.H. Cyan Bluish transparent PB33, new 2008.
RCW#25.6, Thalo Blue / Phthalo Blue / Cyan = Pathalocyanine, Mass-tone
RCW#27.01, Phthalo Turquoise = Pathalocyanine, PB15.3 + PG36, Top-tone
RCW#27.6, PhthaloTurquoise = Pathalocyanine, PB15.3 + PG36, Mass-tone
RCW#28.3, Bright Aqua Green = Phthalocyanine Green + Phthalocyanine Blue + Titanium Dioxide, PG7, PB15.3, PW6, Opaque
RCW#29.3, Opaque Green Light = Phthalocyanine Green + Monoazo Yellow + Cobalt-Titanium-Nickel-Zinc-Aluminum-Oxide. Opaque
RCW#31.0.1, Phthalo Green, B/s = Phthalocyanine, PG7, Transparent
RCW#31.01.9, Emerald Green Syn. + Brominated Copper Phthalocyanine + Titanium Dioxide, PG36, PW6, Opaque
RCW#31.0.9, Phthalo Green Y/s = Phthalocyanine, PG36, Transparent
RCW#33.3, Permanent Green Light = Phthalo Green + Monoazo Yellow, PG-7, PY-3, Opaque
RCW#33.6, Hooker's Green Permanent, PG36 + PY3 + PO49, Transparent
RCW#34.6, Chrome Oxide Green, Chrome Oxide, PG-17, Opaque
RCW#35.0, Yellow Green Organic, Opaque
RCW#35.0.6, Sap Green = Arylamide Yellow GX + Phthalocyanine Green + Red Oxide, PY73, PG7, PR101, Opaque
RCW#36.0.1, Priderit Yellow PY157, Yellow-green, Opaque
RCW#36.0, Thalo Yellow Green = Chlorinated Copper Phthalocyanine + Arylide Yellow 10G + Zinc Oxide, Opaque
RCW#36.3, Green Gold + Nickel Chelated Azo, PG10, Translucent
RCW#36.6, Indian Yellow-Green Extra = Dioxine Nickel Complex + Methin Copper Complex, PY153, PY129, Transparent
RCW#36.6, Green Gold = Azomethine Copper Complex, PY129, Transparent
RCW#36.6, Irgazine green, PY129, Translucent
RCW#36.10, Green Umber, Br7, Translucent

Here is a list of RCW PIGMENTS from Old Holland and Sennelier from one retail company.
You don't need the Caput Mortum, Thalo Green Turquoise Opaque, Cyan blue opaque or any of the tubed whites. Do get the O.H. Phthalo Blue Green Shade instead of the opaque Cyan Blue, or both.
Jar white is of stroking consistency which makes mixing strokeable colors faster.
RCW pigments


Real Color Wheel - Tube Pigment Colors in RGB and hexadecimal codes.

Each color's first number relates to its position on the 36 color Real Color Wheel.
Yellow is the color numbered (#1.0) the full designation is (36RCW#1.0.5),
the .5 is in the middle of the warm to cool veritable shown in the 360RCW
The (dot) second number locates the color in each wedge as it gets darker, just as they do in crystals.
A zero and a number as the second number (#1.01 to #1.09) is a yellow tint, (#1.09) is a very light yellow tint.
The number (#1.1) is the first darker version of yellow, (#1.9) is a very dark yellow brown/side.
Opposite complement pigments mix dark shadow colors just as nature makes dark and lighter shadows on local-color objects.
#1.9 (dark yellow) + #19.0 including #19.9 (French blue to dark blue) mix dark neutral.
The Rutile crystal shows progressive color, a tint of yellow, full yellow, dark brown/yellow, blue and black.
Titanium Crystal, Rutile 


Test your monitor, the top button is the deepest Black.

The next radio button is White. The next radio button is White.

Or a cool neutral tint. #"CCCCCC" R=180, G=180, B=180, CMYK= 20Y 40C 20M, RCW= Any triad or complementary set of colors, plus white.

Enter a color name or hexidesimal code, FFFFFF = White (all colors full, the numbers 000000 = black (no color). Use numbers in groups of 33 to be web safe. Examples: FF0000 is red, 990000 is a dark red color red and no other colors, 660000 is a darker red, 33000 is very dark red. 00FF00 is green, 0000FF is blue, CCCCCC is neutral gray.

Enter any color name or Hexidesimal color code.


Top-tone is adding White to the color. Under-tone is adding clear. Mass-tone is thick out of the tube.
Click the radio button to change the background to the matching tube color.

I think a spectroscope of dried pigment color would show all colors to be impure but this can't always be shown on the web. The percentage CMYK was from mathematical printed chart and matched to the tube color by eye.

I matched the dried chip color to the computer by eye. It's close enough to paint with a computer tablet and compare the relationships of similar colors in pigments.

I matched the pigment tube color dry to RGB color and read it with a Digital Color Meter.

Top-tone is adding White to the color. Under-tone is adding clear, like water or oil. Mass-tone is thick out of the tube pigment. Click the radio button to change the background to the matching tube color.

#1.01.1, Rembrandt Nickel Titan Yellow Light, a cool tint pigment. #"F1F0A7", R=241 G=240 B=167.

#1.1.1, Mussini Zinc Yellow, the coolest full chroma Yellow. An extra color on the palette. #"F1F10A", R=241 G=241 B=010
To mix a dark neutral, use the darkest form of opaque yellow #1.10.1, Mussini Burnt Umber. Note: Cadmium Yellow also darkens to this color in the "Real Color Wheel" using this brown to form all warm yellows. #"331500", R=51 G=29 B=0

#1.0.2, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Pale, a slightly cool Yellow. #"FFFA43", R=255 G250 B=067
Opposite color = 19.0.5, Blockx French Ultramarine Blue, translucent. #"150036", R=21, G=0, B=36
To mix a dark neutral, use the darkest form of opaque yellow, #1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber and mix it 1:1 with its opposite color, Ultramarine Blue.
Do that with each of the colors in this arc #1 to make a neutral dark or neutral gray.

#1.0.3, Bellini Lemon Yellow, Lead Chromate, a light cool Yellow. #"FAFF28", RGB, R=250 G=255 B=098.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

#1.0.4, Grumbacher Cadmium Barium Yellow Pale, a middle Yellow. #"FFFF0E", R=255 G=255 B=14.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

#1.0.5, Mussini Cadmium Yellow Lemon, the middle Yellow. #"FFFF0A", R=255 G=255 B=000.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Mussini Ultramarine, translucent. #"150064", R=21 G=0 B=100.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

#1.0.6, Dual-tone Gamboge, changing to this Cadmium Yellow under-tone. #"FAFB32" R=250, G=251 B=50
#1.2.2, Old Holland Gamboge Lake Extra, Mass-tone, a Yellow-Orange dual-tone color, #"FF9F00", R=255, G=159 B=000
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Mussini Ultramarine, translucent. #"150064", R=021, G=000, B=100,
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

#1.0.8, This is the Under-tone tint color of Old Holland Indian Yellow/Brown Lake Extra Dual-tone. #"FCE146", R=252 G=225 B=70.
#1.4.8, Mass-tone, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Brown Lake Extra. It makes a good dark triad neutral, but not a strong Yellow, more like a Cadmium Yellow Middle Under-tone. (Old Holland Indian Yellow Brown Lake, has a Warm Tan Ocher top-tone with a Middle Cadmium Yellow undertone. It makes a poor Orange but will turn Ultramarine Blue to a decent Neutral Dark if that is all you had on a three color palette.) We artists REALLY need this color in acrylics and water colors, not just in oils by only one manufacture. Update, 2010, today every major color brand now has an Indian yellow. A Yellow/side Burnt Sienna if you will. #"986011", R=152 G=096 B=017.
It will lighten farther to very close to a pure yellow like the Yellow-Orange side Indian yellow. I use this color when I only use one Indian yellow or one yellow only. It's not like translucent Gamboge that you can recognize everywhere.
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Mussini Ultramarine dark, translucent. #"1A166B", R=26 G=22 B=107. This color Old Holland Indian Yellow/Brown transparent will also make a neutral dark when mixed with ultramarine dark.

#1.0.9, Here is the dual-toned Under-tone color of Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra. The pale undertone is a strong Yellow-Pale while the top mass-tone hue is Orange and Vermilion mixed 1:1.#"FFF000", R=255, G=240, B=000, To make a dark neutral use 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber. Note: Cadmium Yellow also darkens to this color in the "Real Color Wheel" using this Brown to form all warm Yellows. #"331D00", R=51 G=29 B=0
#4.0.1, Old Holland Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra mass-tone, a dual-toned Orange to Yellow transparent color. #"FF5700", R=255, G=87, B=0 This color can replace the famous "golden transparent", one of the two color aspects of Natural Indian Yellow.
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Mussini Ultramarine dark, translucent. #"150064",

#1.10.5, Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum, the ancient color Bitumen, a transparent dark brown/yellow side, Rembrandt used this favorite glaze to transcend dark (Doerner). The Smithsonian says he did not use this color? Don't use this pigment it is much too oily, Rembrandt had no other choice at that time, he used it as his last glaze. #"331D00", R=51 G=29, B=0. New in Liqutex, transparent Van Dyke Red Hue, mixes neutral with Ultramarine Blue. Way to go Liqutex!
A transparent Under-tone of Rembrandt or Mussini Asphaltum or the new Benzimidazolone PBr:25.
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Mussini Ultramarine Light, medium or dark, translucent. #"150064", R=21 G=0 B=100

1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber, a calcined translucent warm Red-Brown. Note: Cadmium Yellow also darkens to this color in the "Real Color Wheel" and iron based crystals, using this Brown to form all warm Yellows. #"331500", R=51 G=29 B=0
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Mussini Ultramarine Light, medium or dark, translucent. #"150064", R=21 G=0 B=100

#2.01.5, Mussini Naples Yellow Light (.01 means the mass-tone appears as or is a tinted color, .010 is the lightest tint before white) Mussini Naples Yellow Light is an opaque Nickel and Titanium replacement for Antimony Yellow. This was the traditional (1875) base flesh tone when made with Antimony Lead, later and earlier lead-tin Yellow was used. #"FFEDA8", R=255 G=237 B=168
Opposite color = #20.0.5, There is no opposite tubed color to make a neutral dark because there is too much white in the pigment to go dark.

#2.0.2, Schmincke Mussini Cadmium Yellow Middle is more Yellow than Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Medium. #"FFED09", R=255 G=237 B=009
#2.0.6, Grumbacher Cadmium Yellow Medium. #"FFE709" R=255 G=231 B=9
Opposite color = #20.0.5, There is no pre-made tubed color in this opposite color arc #20.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

#2.3.5, Mussini Yellow Raw Ocher, opaque tan. #"9B6A26", R=155 G=106 B=038
Opposite color = #20.0.5, no pre-made tubed color.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.
#2.4.5, Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide, dual-toned red-tan, add white for a yellow-tan. It has the same mass-tone matching color as Mussini Indian Yellow Brown Lake Extra. #"986011", R=152 G=096 B=017
The top-tone of Mussini Translucent Yellow Oxide.
Opposite color = #20.0.5, no pre-made tubed color.
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

#3.00.5, Mussini Naples Yellow Deep, (True Naples is either Green-side, Yellow-side or Red-side, higher firing temperatures make warmer, lighter colors. #"D9A878", R=217 G=169 B=120
Opposite color = #21.0.5, There is no pre-made tube color in this opposite color arc #21 because there is too much white in the pigment to go dark.

#4.0.1, Isoindolinone PY110, mass-tone, Old Holland Indian yellow-orange transparent. Tartrazine PY:100 #"FF8200", R=255, G=130, B=0, dual-tone to cadmium yellow light
#1.0.5, Tint of Isoindolinone = Mussini Cadmium Yellow. #"FFFF00", R=255 G=255 B=0
Opposite color = #19.5.5, Ultramarine Blue Dark. They mix together to make a fairly good neutral dark.

#4.0.5, YYYM, Mussini Cadmium Orange, opaque. #"FF8200", R=255, G=130, B=0
Opposite color = #22.0.5, Mussini Cobalt Blue Light, or dark, opaque. Because both colors are opaque the final mixture is not dark but rather it's a lighter neutral gray. #"00255C", R=0 G=37 B=92

#4.6.5, Mussini Burnt Sienna, transparent Red-Brown. Orange changing to dark brown, goes through Burnt Sienna. The mass-tone from the tube #"4D0000", R=77, G=0, B=0
Opposite color = Cobalt Blue to Ultramarinelt Blue, these combinations can make a Burnt Umber or a neutral dark.
The under-tone (the pigment color with clear medium added) of Mussini Burnt Sienna.
The high top-tone tint of Mussini Burnt Sienna.

#6.0.5, Rembrandt Chinese Vermilion Extra, translucent, 10% more yellow than in red light pigment. #"FF3200" R=255 G=50 B=0
Opposite color = #22.0.5, cobalt blue to #19.0.5, ultramarine blue

#7.0.5, Cadmium Red Light. #"FF0000" R=255 G=0 B=0
Opposite color = #25.6.5, Grumbacher Thalo Blue mass-tone, transparent. A neutral dark can be made by adding any color from cyan to ultramarine blue. #"000040", R=000, G=000, B=064

#7.5.5, Blocks Venetian Red, warm opaque. Cadmium Red going to neutral dark black. #"990000", RGB = R=153 G=0 B=0
Opposite color = #25.6.5, Grumbacher Thalo Blue mass-tone, transparent, a perfect Cyan. tint =

#12.0.5, Rembrandt Rose, transparent Scarlet-Crimson. #"F1004C", R=241, G=0, B=76
Opposite color = #27.6.5, Rembrandt Blue Green in it's mass-tone, a transparent Turquoise color. #"003020", R=0 G=48 B=48
The under-tone of this tube color.
The top-tone of Rembrandt Rose, the perfect Pink, notice it is getting cooler. #"FF4186", RGB, R=255, G=065, B=134

#13.0.5, Daniel Smith Quinacridone Magenta PR122, a warm dual-tone Magenta with a cooler mass tone similar to Cobalt Violet and a warmer top-tone, #"BD0053" R=189 G=0 B=83
The top-tone of PR:122, the perfect primary magenta. The pigment Opera is another perfect magenta but it's fugitive.
Opposite color = 31.6.2, Mussini Phthalo Green mass-tone is blue/side green, transparent. Thalo Green mixes to a perfect neutral dark. #"003010" R=0. G=48, B=16

#14.0.5, Bocour, New York, Cobalt Violet Phosphate, transparent dual-toned, dark mass-tone to a cool top-tone pink when mixed with White and a warm under-tone pink when mixed with medium. This color is perfect for making Ultramarine Blue using Thalo Cyan. Today this pigment is not available #"BD0081" R=163 G=0 B=109
Opposite color =#31.6.8, Grumbacher Thalo Green Yellow/Side, transparent. Has a warmer mass-tone than top-tone. #"003000" R=000, G=048, B=000
Cool top-tone.
Cooler top-tone with more White.
Warm transparent under-tone.

#16.0.5, Liquitex Carbazole Dioxazine Purple, transparent. With the addition of White, this pigment completely changes into a cooler color Purple, it is dual-toned: #"300030" R=048, G=000, B=048
Opposite color = 33.6.5, Hooker's green Permanent, transparent or translucent, depending on the brand. #"1A2813", R=26, G=40, B=19
A top-tone tint of this color Carbazole Dioxazine Purple.

#16.0.5, Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple, this mass-tone tube color looks like this:
Opposite color = 33.6.5, Hooker's Green Permanent, transparent or translucent, depending on the brand. #"1A2813", R=26, G=40, B=19
With the addition of White this pigment fills the warm slot. Here is the tinted color of this pigment Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple.

#18.0.5, Ultramarine Violet, translucent mass-color from the tube. #"260035", R=38 G=0 B=53
Opposite color = #36.10.5, Mussini Raw Umber, a translucent cool Brown/green side. #"332500", R051, G=037, B=000
Top-tone tint of this color Ultramarine Violet.

19.0.5, Blocks French Ultramarine Blue, translucent. #"150036", R=21, G=0, B=54
The top-tone tint of this color French Ultramarine Blue.
The opposite color = #1.0.5, Mussini Cadmium Yellow #"FFFF00".
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.

19.2.5, Mussini Ultramarine Light, translucent. #"150064", R=21, G=0, B=100
The opposite color = #1.0.5, Mussini Cadmium Yellow #"FFFF00".
To mix a dark neutral use the darkest form of opaque yellow, 1.10.9, Mussini Burnt Umber.
Top-tone tint of this color Mussini Ultramarine Light.

#22.0.5, Mussini Cobalt Blue Light, opaque. Nobody makes a true Cobalt Blue anymore. The artificial colors are in this Opaque Azure range. There are no transparent Azures available. #"00255C", R=000, G=037, B=092
Opposite color = #4.0.5, Mussini Cadmium Orange, opaque. #"FF8200", R=255, G=130, B=0
Because both colors are opaque the final mixture is not dark but rather it's a lighter neutral gray.
A top-tone tint of this color Cobalt Blue.

#25.6.5, Grumbacher Thalo Blue mass-tone, transparent, a perfect Cyan. This colors mass-tone resembles Ultramarine Blue
(because of the sheen?), and the top-tone tint color is RGB Cyan, just like the sky. The more white that is added, the warmer the color becomes. #"000040", R=0, G=0, B=64 Paint the sky with Thalo Blue or Manganese Blue and Dioxine Purple to make all the colors between and including the Ultramarine Blue color. In crystal Cyan darkens by adding magenta, which makes blue as in the Iceland Spar crystal.
Opposite colors = #7.5.5 Blocks Venetian Red, warm opaque going to neutral dark black and #7.0.5 Cadmium Red.
Adding either color mixes to a neutral dark.
A middle top-tone tint of this color Thalo Blue.
A very high top-tone tint of this color is, Cyan Thalo Blue.

#27.6.5, Rembrandt Blue Green in it's mass-tone, a transparent Turquoise color. #"003030", R=0, G=48 B=48
Opposite color = #12.0.5, Rembrandt Rose, transparent Scarlet-Crimson. #"F1004C", R=241 G=0 B=76.
The top-tone tint Blue Green.

#29.3.5, Mussini Opaque Green Light, a mix of Titanium and Phthalo Green, cool opaque, too handy to be in the auxiliary color wheel. #"007559" R=0 G=117 B=89
Opposite color = #11.0.5, There are no tube colors opposite Opaque Green Light.
This color Opaque Green Light has too much white in it to make a good dark, it will mix to an neutral gray.

#31.6.2, Mussini Phthalo Green mass-tone is blue/side green, transparent. #"003010" R=0 G=48 B=016
Opposite color = #13.0.5, Quinacridone Magenta, PR122.
A tint of this color Phthalo Green.

#31.6.8, Grumbacher Thalo Green Yellow/Side, transparent has a warmer mass-tone than top-tone. #"003000" R=0 G=48 B=0
Opposite color = #13.0.5, Quinacridone Magenta PR122.
A top-tone tint of this color Thalo Green yellow/side is: RGB, R=0 G=255 B=176

#33.3.5, Mussini Permanent Green Light, warm opaque. #'00590A'", R=000 G=089 B=010
Opposite color = #14.0.5, a cool magenta, cobalt violet transparent is not available anymore.
A tinted top-tone by adding white of this Permanent Green Light color is: RGB, R=0,G=255, B=147

#33.6.5, Hooker's green Permanent, transparent or translucent, depending on the brand. #"1A2813", R=026, G=040, B=019
Opposite color = ##16.0.5, Liquitex Carbazole Dioxazine Purple, transparent. #"300030" R=48 G=0 B=48
A tinted top-tone by adding white of this color Hooker's green Permanent is: RGB, R=0,G=255, B=147

#34.4.5, Rembrandt Chromium Green Oxide, warm opaque. #'366432'", R=54, G=100, B=50
Opposite color = #16.0.5, Grumbacher Dioxazine Purple.
This combination will only make a neutral gray not black.
#35.0.5, Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic Opaque has a cooler mass-tone then under-tone. Same color as Lime Green. #"79C700", R=121, G=199, B=000 Here below is the warmer under-tone mixed with a clear medium.
Opposite color = #18.0.5, Ultramarine Violet, translucent.
Tint of Old Holland Yellow-Green Organic Opaque.
#35.6.5, Winsor and Newton Sap Green, #"233A00, R=35, G=58, B=0, transparent dual-tone, from a mass-tone cooler dark to a warmer tint mixing Yellow-Green and White. Caution; Most brands include black in this pigment and don't give it a permanent rating. Be safe and don't use it or use a synthetic. Warning: it sticks out like a sore thumb.
#19.0.5 Ultramarine Violet, translucent mass-color from the tube. #"260035", R=38 G=0 B=53
This is the closest pigment that will mix neutral dark with sap green.
A tint with added white to this Sap Green color is: RGB, R=152, G=197, B=0

36.0.5, Brillant Yellow-Green, translucent in acrylic, opaque in oil. #"DBFF76", R=219 G=255 B=118
Opposite color = #19.0.5, Ultramarine Violet, translucent mass-color from the tube. #"260035", R=38 G=0 B=53 Brillant Yellow-Green has too much opaque yellow in it to be used for a neutral dark, use the color 36.10.5 raw umber instead.

36.6.5, Mussini Genuine Golden Green, #"606300", R=96 G=99 B=0
Opposite color = #19.0.5 Ultramarine Violet, translucent mass-color from the tube. #"260035", R=038 G=000 B=053
A top-tone tint by adding white to this dual-toned Genuine Golden Green color is: RGB, R=246 G=255, B=0

36.10.5 Mussini Raw Umber, a translucent cool Brown/green side: #"332500" R51 G=37 B=0
Opposite color = #19.0.5 Ultramarine Violet, translucent mass-color from the tube. #"260035", R=38 G=0 B=53

These colors make painting very easy indeed.
Return to White
a cool neutral tint. #"CCCCCC", R=204 G=204 B=204

The RGB Aerial Palette for 10 Concentric Rings.
Go to this chart page to see how this digital Aerial Palette is used.

Aerial Palette


All dots are links to each pigment's description.
The center links to the photo pigment color chip chart pigment page. Pigment artists, don't miss it!
Real Color Wheels are 360, 36, 12, 6 or 3 colors.

The color "arcs" or "wedges/arcs" are numbered from 1 to 36, the 360RCW shows 360 colors.)

#00. Outer tint rings are two digits, they are lighter pigments and tinted hues of this full color.
#0. All wedges main colors are digit zero, that's 100% full chroma for opaque pigments and a 50% top-tone tint for transparent pigments.
#1.01 The first tint of the 1st color yellow arc/wedge, two digits.
#1.0 the full chroma opaque yellow or a 50% tint of a transparent Indian yellow both are in Block 0.
#1.0.1 the coolest of 9 colors within that 10º arc/wedge of the 360RCW and VariableRCW.
#1.1 the first dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color yellow
#1.2 the second dark
#1.3 the third dark
#1.4 the forth dark, Gold Ocher opaque or mass-tone Indian Yellow PY150
#1.5 the fifth dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color, also the mass-color of some transparent pigments
#1.6 the sixth dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color, also the mass-color of some transparent pigments
#1.7 the seventh dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color, also the mass-color of some transparent pigments
#1.8 the eighth dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color, also the mass-color of some transparent pigments
#1.9 the ninth dark of 10 divisions to dark of this first color, also the mass-color of some transparent pigments
#1.10 the tenth dark, 10% intensity of the 1st pure-color

C l i c k a b l e  A r t i s t s  R e a l  C o l o r  W h e e l :  f i n d  m a t c h i n g  p i g m e n t s

Lead Yellow, cool opaque Naples Yellow Light Naples Yellow Deep Acrylic Vivid lime Green, Oil Yellow Green Opaque Brilliant Yellow Green, translucent in acrylics Cadmium Yellow Cadmium Yellow Medium Cadmium Orange, opaque Green Gold, Transparent Indian Yellow-Orange Lake Extra Yellow Raw Ocher, Opaque Translucent Yellow Oxide Chinese Vermilion Extra, translucent Permanent Green light Chromium Green Oxide Indian Yellow-Brown Transparent Burnt Sienna, translucent Cadmium Red Light-Medium, Opaque Thalo Green, transparent Raw Umber, translucent Burnt Umber, translucent Venetian Red Oxide, Warm, Opaque Opaque Green Light Pigment Photo Chip Chart Rembrandt Rose, Translucent Turquoise Blue-Green, transparent Quinacridone Magenta, Warm Thalo Blue Cyan, Transparent Cobalt Magenta, Cool Ultramarine Blue, Translucent Ultramarine Blue Light Manganese Violet Cobalt Blue French Ultramarine Blue Purple, Transparent Raw Sienna, translucent Ultramarine Violet

UNDERSTANDING RCW NOTATIONS ( RCW#1of36 .wedge .block .relative temperature )

NOTE: The RCW logo includes the small, multicolored reference ring.

Any RCW can be seen as a set of twelve concentric rings, with the RCW logo in the center, comprised of blocks, these concentric rings intersect with all wedges.  The ring of pure colors is called Ring "0". Outside of Ring 0 lie the what can be referred to as the double digit "outer" rings. On the RCW above, there is only one, the "50% tint" ring. Similarly, inside Ring 0 lie the "inner" rings. These are the darker valued rings. 

The main ring represents either the full-chroma (100%) opaque pigment, or a 50% top-tone tint of darker transparent pigment. All of these colors are indicated by appending from ".1" to ".9" to the end of its wedge number. So, pure yellow is the middle of the 9º VariableRCW and is written as 36RCW#1.0.5. Cooler would be #1.0.1, warmer would be #1.0.9.

This RCW is made up of thirty-six 10º "wedges," (wedge-shaped stacks of "blocks,") which are arranged top to bottom and side-by-side, around the RCW logo. A wedge depicts specific intensities or values of a single color. Darker versions lie below and tinted versions lay above the pure-color block zero.

The primary-color wedges are the yellow, magenta, and cyan wedges, RCW#1, RCW#13, and RCW#25. The secondary-color wedges are the Red, Blue, and Green wedges, RCW#7, RCW#19, and RCW#31.

Indicates a block's position in the wedge in relation to the pure-color "0" block. Any block depicts a specific intensity of its wedge's pure color. The pure-color block is denoted by appending the single digit ".0" to its wedge number. Below this block, are the "dark" blocks. They show how the pure color looks darker as it gets mixed, (in 10% increments) with its true complement, the pure color of the opposite wedge. Except for bright yellow, use yellow's darker opaque brown to mix neutral-dark. The transparent dark brown to bright yellow is only available to the Japanese auto industry, I saw a picture of the car sprayed with it.
Above the pure-color block, are "tint" blocks. This RCW has only one, showing the pure color as lightened 50/50 with thinner if the color is transparent, or with white if the color is opaque.  This first tint-block is denoted by appending a double digit ".01" to the wedge number. In the case of multiple tint-blocks, they would be denoted by appending, ".02", ".03", etc. as they get further from the pure color.
Note: The dark blocks, five and six, depict the mass-tones of some transparent dual-toned pigments. Other dark blocks in this wedge show the mass-tone-related opaque oxides.

Each ring of every color is solid in this 36 color wheel to represent one or more pigments. The Real Color Wheel is also a 360 color wheel with a different color in each degree of the circle.
A color's relative temperature is how cool or warm it is in that 10º color. Denote relative temperature using nine color degrees of spectrum color in each wedge/arc/pie. To read color a wedge spectrum number rotate it to the top viewing position. Many wedges have one or more pigments with a relative temperature in it, indicated by appending ".1 to .9" in its block number. "RCW#1.0.1", is closer to the left color wedge, so it would be a relatively cooler color of yellow. "RCW#1.0.9" is closer to the right color wedge, a relatively warmer color. "RCW#1.0.5" being in the middle of this 10º wedges spectrum, it represents this center degree of color for the whole 10 degrees. This solid color fills the "full chroma" block on the 36RCW#1.0.

RCW#15 refers to a wedge,
RCW#15.0 refers to a pure mass-tone pigment.
RCW#15.0.1 to RCW#15.0.9 are 9 degrees of temperature changed colors. A zinc yellow is cooler than a cadmium yellow, both colors are in the same pure color ring.
RCW#15.00 to RCW#15.09, these double digits numbers refer to tints of the pure color RCW#15.0.

detail RCW5

Cyan, RCW#25.0 darkens in intensity to RCW#25.10 dark blue is exactly the same as Ultramarine Blue's darkest blue RCW#19.10 before any complement is added into it.
Shadows on a cyan object include cyan and ultramarine blue which is cyan and some magenta.
Yellow RCW#1.0 darkens in intensity to RCW#1.10.5 brown with, exactly the same color as Red's darkest red RCW#7.10 brownbefore any complement is added into it.
Shadows on a yellow object include ultramarine blue and brown.
Neither wedge uses the complement to get dark-neutral yet but the next block down would be black in both and 100% of each color in the opposition.
Beyond any Block#10 is Black. It is easily made by mixing together the three primaries: Yellow PY:153 warm or yellow PY:150 cool, Magenta PR:122 and Cyan PB:15.
The wedges from yellow to red and cyan to blue have this similar characteristic while the others are darkened with their opposite color.
Like  RCW#13.0 100% magenta + 100% green to make black. That is how 2/3's of this color wheel works, 
1/3 of the color wheel (RCW#25 cyan to RCW#19 blue and RCW#1 yellow to RCW#7 red) work like this.
RCW#7 red makes the dark brown by adding its opposite color cyan. Cyan makes neutral darks 1:1 with red pigment before or after the dark blue is added. I wish some day this dark blue to cyan will be one transparent dual-toned pigment. I saw a really nice truck painted with it a few weeks ago, it blew my mind.
Yellow makes neutral-darks by using dark brown and its opposite color ultramarine blue. Here is a photo of the dark brown liquid (made from dry pigment) Tartrazine. Tartrazine is not a pigment for sale in tubes yet, but it should be. The photo is for proportions to use it as ink in my plotter. The third swatch from the bottom end is what I use.

Here is the permanent transparent ink color in my plotter, it's called Tartrazine Acid Yellow 23, an Azo pigment, PY:100.
The photo is of a 7 month sun test on the dashboard of my van. I included a link to a larger image to show the faded out ball point date in the upper right corner as a reference.
This sun test shows that Tartrazine PY:100 is a permanent pigment. 7-31-9

   Transparent yellow printing

RCW Transparent Primary Water Color Palette with Tartrazine yellow Clear.

Ceramic w/c palette

RCW#25 transparent cyan and opaque red RCW#7 are opposite colors. By using similarly-numbered blocks of these wedges to represent pairs of complements they will make neutral-darks when mixed.
2 parts cyan and 1 part magenta makes a hue of cobalt blue.
Cyan and Blue will mix the same neutral dark with the two opposite wedge-gradients of colors.
100 parts transparent cyan + 100 parts transparent magenta make Ultramarine Blue. 100 parts of RCW#19.0 Ultramarine Blue and 90 parts of Burnt Umber will make RCW#19.10 Dark Ultramarine Blue.
100 parts cyan + 50 parts magenta makes Cobalt Blue

36RCW#25, CYAN TO DARK BLUE matching the printed RCW

#25.0 cyan  = 40% mass-tone intensity in a clear media + 00% ult. blue. Notice printed cyan is a 40% tint of, not the mass-tone of PB15.3.
#25.1 cyan hue = 60% intensity in a clear media + 0% ult. blue.
#25.2 cyan hue = 40% intensity in a clear media + 5% ult. blue = #19.0
#25.3 cyan hue =  50% intensity in a clear media + 10% blue #19.0
#25.3 cobalt hue = 60% intensity in a clear media + 40% blue #19.0
#25.4 cobalt hue =  50% intensity in a clear media + 50% blue #19.0
#25.5 blue hue = 40% intensity in a clear media + 60% blue #19.5
#25.6 dk blue = 30% intensity in a clear media + 70% dark blue #19.6
#25.7 dk blue = 20% intensity in a clear media + 80% dark blue #19.7
#25.8 dk blue = 10% intensity in a clear media + 90% dark blue #19.8
#25.9 dk blue = cyan 00% + 100% dark blue = #19.9
black = dark-neutral = 100 parts blue + 100 parts red's brown or yellow's brown (very close to the same color burnt umber)

Parts are different than percentages. 100 parts of of blue (100 teaspoons) and 10 parts brown (10 teaspoons) = 110 teaspoons = 100%

#19.0 = French Ultramarine Blue
#19.1 = Ult. Light = 75% Ult. Blue Light + 25% Ult. Blue Deep
#19.2 = Ult. Light = 50% Ult. Blue Light + 50% Ult. Blue Deep
#19.3 = Ult. Deep = 80% Ult. Blue Deep + 30% Ult. Blue Light
#19.4 = Ult. Deep = 90% Ult. Blue Deep + 10% Ult. Blue Light
#19.5 = 100% Ultramarine Blue Deep
#19.6 = 90% Ult. Blue Deep + 10% brown
#19.7 = 80%  Ult. Blue Deep + 20% brown
#19.8 = 70%  Ult. Blue Deep + 30% brown
#19.9 = 60% Ult. Blue Deep + 40% brown
#19.10 dk blue = 50% Ult. Blue Deep + 50% brown
Ultramarine Light will work if you don't have Ultramarine Blue Deep

Yellow is a family of related colors. Two transparent yellows, orange/side and brown/side (a yellow oxide hue) both go to bright yellow. Opaque iron oxides cover the whole range of yellow, umber's and ochers are oxides. Burnt brown, raw brown, French ocher, yellow ocher, gold ocher and many in between. Amberg yellow oxide is the brightest yellow ocher oxide. A great color run by the Iron element!

Horray for Iron's opaques and Nickle Azo's transparent oils and Tartrazine Azo for water-based paints. Congradulations to the winners of the Yellow Color Award from the RCW. I know it's been done before by the Byzantine's in the Dark Ages durning their First Golden Age of Byzantine, Pictura Translucida paintings but these winning pigments are permanent and tested in boun fresco.

So there are many ways for yellow to reach brown when you include the transparent and opaque yellows plus the dual-toned transparent browns that tint to light ochers.


The 36 "real color wheel" will give you accurate split complements. Between #1yellow and #19ultblue are eighteen 10° spaces on each side. From one to nine colors on each side of the opposite color makes the designers' split complements. Expect perfection; it happens all the time in nature. "YELLOW AND BROWN ARE DIFFERENT DEGREES OF THE SAME COLOR". Earth colored with the the opaque iron element traverses yellow, yellow ochers, red ochers, brown ochers and brown green ochers. The Nickel element is the yellow to orange dual-toned transparent colors, and yellow to ocher dual-toned transparent colors. Nickel Azo is from transparent or translucent yellow, orange and red. The Cadmium element can make a opaque light yellow-green, yellow, orange and red, always opaque. Lead makes yellow, orange, red, brown warm and brown cool, always opaque. Copper element will make transparent cyan including green and makes a red transparent crystal, all transparent. Quinacridone is best making transparent magenta to transparent rose.
12-14-10, I just found Old Holland's Master Acrylics O.H. C 685 MANGANESE BLUE in their PDF, at the time I was ordering C 691 PHTHALO BLUE GREEN SHADE, B 690 PHTHALO BLUE TURQUOISE, B 697 THALO GREEN YELLOW SHADE and more transparent Indian Yellow Orange/Side

Check a box of strawberry Nutri-Grain bars sold in America and youll notice that the treats
contain synthetic food dyes like Red 40, Yellow 6, and Blue 1. Shoppers on the other side of the
pond buying the same products, however, will see that their bars get their colors from
all-natural beet root, annatto, and paprika extract. As a consequence, the Kellogg Company,
Kraft, McDonald and other American companies that do business in Europe use safe, natural
colorings there but harmful, synthetic petrochemicals here.

Prismacolor pencils mounted on the Real Color Wheel